sábado, 15 de marzo de 2008




Translation Process
Process Variables
Linguistic Aspects
The Type Of Text
The Source And Target Languages.
The Purpose And Reader Of The Translation.
Approaches to teaching translation.
Two contrasting methodologies.
Methodology A
Methodology B
Teaching Translation And The Use Of Technology
Constructivism theory
Meaningful learning
The applicability of meaningful learning and constructivist teaching theory to translation teaching
History Of The Teaching Translation Supported By Tics
Translation Process Concepts.
Translation methodologies.
Limitation of translation technologies.
Adiscussion of three methodologies
A basic approach
Comprehension and interpretation of the text
Re-wording of the source text into the target language
Assessment of the resulting target text
Equivalence vs functionality
Equivalence -based translation theory
Syntactic, semantic, and stylistic analysis of the source language sentence
Analysis of the translation difficulties
Translation of the text and elimination of the difficulties
Critical assessment of the result
Back translation of the sentence into a source language
Functional approach
Pragmatig translation problems
Cultural translation problems
Linguistic translation problems
Text-specific translation problems
The importance of translation reference
Tools of the translator
Linguistic prerequisites.
Reading comprehension in the source language
Writing ability in the target language
Extralinguistic prerequisites
The subject matter of the source text
The source and target text style
The audience for which translator writes
The translator’s self evaluation ability
The translator’s curiosity and love for research
The ethics of the translator
The use of TICS in teaching translation
University Of Veracruz
Language School
English Bachelor
Translation Area
English Workshop

For the modern world, translation, as a tool for intercultural communication, is an essential activity. The interactions which, thanks to translated texts, are made possible, yet which wouldn’t be in the absence of a translation industry, are endless. The translation of academic texts, literature, commercial documents, are all means by which people of one language group gain information and familiarity with work which was initially done in another language. The increase in information exchange represents a very positive factor towards the growth of the world economy.
In response to this effect, the demand for translation schools is consistently high all around the world, with young people wishing to involve themselves in this burgeoning industry. For this very reason, the awareness of the importance of the influence of teaching translation theory and practice on the quality of classroom instruction is increasing. Numerous written works about the history and process of translation have been produced, even though; translation teaching is still a pioneer topic.
The lack of literature is notable, considering the obvious significance that it would have in the quality of classroom education. As the translation student needs to graduate from his or her studies wielding a series of theoretical bases and practical tools, it is required a systematic methodology aimed at assuring that these characteristics are achieved.
Among other topics, it is a must to mention how important it is to me to take carry on a research about teaching translation, since I was a student from the bachelor mentioned before. It would be a great professional achievement to contribute to the development and perfection of my own alma mater.
It is not intended for this thesis to be in any way definitive on the subject. Rather our intention is just the opposite. I foresee that, after studying the present paper, it will be easy for the readers to imagine further possible topics for future thesis projects.
Upon selecting the objective of mastering the techniques proposed by the French Canadian translation model, it is a must that a variety of activities aimed at increasing educational quality in that area can be designed and supported by technological tools. In this way I consider this present thesis to be an initial contribution towards what could be over many years a long series of successively related papers. Were this succession of studies and research to take place, and were the university to incorporate at least some of the resulting proposals, I am confident that the quality of instruction within this translation courses and workshops would be improved significantly.
Along this paper, a series of subjects will be expounded as deep as needed to understand the management of the topics seen.
The first part of this work will be addressed to provide a general view of this research, then, I will lead the interest into the translation context, since the history of translation to the specific explanation of each technique from the French-Canadian Translation Model.
Next, the reader will be introduced to the teaching translation theory from its first manifestation to the latest lines of research. Here we will define the lines of pedagogical theories to be taken in account for this paper
Also we will concern the theory of the uses of Technology as support for class management.
This framework will bring the support needed to continue to the next step the design of the pedagogical proposal and the technological support.
1. Translation process
The process of what is translation, is popularly considered as that by which a text is read in one language, changed to express the same meaning in a second language, and finally rewritten in that second language. As true as such a description is, however, and this is typical of popular conceptions of complex concepts, it invariably leaves a lot to be desired. In the statement, information is lacking, and a number of questions are duly provoked. What variables act together to influence the process? Is the process random, or is there a way to systematically approach and carry it out? How, and based upon what criteria, can the final product be evaluated? etc.
Various researchers and professionals in the field have taken the time to answer these questions and describe this process using a more academic approach. As would be expected, they add more detail and use more specific vocabulary, and their definitions of the process take into account the aboveementioned factors, and others. These descriptions include the following:
"[T]ranslation [ ... serves] as a cross-cultural bilingual communication vehicle among peoples[; ... It] is understood as a transfer process from a foreign language [oo.] to the mother tongue [oo.or to another] foreign language" (Gerding-Salas: 1998, no page).
"Translating consists of reproducing, in the target language, the nearest equivalent to the message in the source language" (Nida and Taber, 1974, in Gerding-Salas: 1998, no page).
Translation is the reproduction of "technical, common language and literary texts adequately in the target language" (Wilss: 1976, 118).
Translation "is a communicative interaction between members of two different cultures", where "[t]he communicative function of a text is derived from the specific constellation of the factors of the communicative situation in which it is used" (Nord: 1992, 42-43).
Describing the process in the popular manner as articulated in the first paragraph makes it appear quite straightforward and simple; the other expressions, as is typically the case with academic descriptions, give a better feel for the complexity of the task. In particular, the final two quotations clearly indicate that a large number of variables can and usually do influence the translation process. Nord, in her chapter, goes on to quote the so-called New Rhetoric formula, as, when applied to the translation transfer process, it expresses quite well the "constellation of factors" which a translator must be aware of and take into account upon tackling a text:
Who transmits to whom, what for, by which medium, where, when, why a text with what function? On what subject matter does he say what (what not), in what order, using which non-verbal elements, in which words, in what kind of sentences, in which tone, to what effect? (43)
Indeed, Tricás, 1995, in Gerding-Salas, 1998, makes brief reference to this very variety of elements that the translator must deal with in his or her daily activity; he states: "[T]he transfer process is a difficult and complex approach mechanism, one in which one must make use of all one's intel!ectual capacity, intuition and skill" (no page). Never are any two jobs the same, and the mark of the outstanding translator will be his or her capacity to handle adequately the "constellation of factors" towards the production of the superior target text.
1. Process variables
The variables which influence and complicate the work of the translator invariably include those described in the following subsections.

1.1.1. Linguistic aspects. A written work is not simply a jumble of words thrown together for some particular purpose. A series of interrelated factors play important roles in determining just how a text will develop and turn out. These factors include the following:

• Lexicon: the specific choice of words which was made for use in the text.

• Syntax: the order in which the words are arranged and the form that they take

• Style: the types of phrases and word combinations that are employed in the text

• Semantics: the overall meaning derived from the interplay of all of the above.

These principal factors, in combination with others, interact to create the unique body of what is the written text.

Each factor on its own represents a certain level of transfer difficulty. Some, when it comes to finding the adequate way to reproduce the source text's meaning in the target language, will be more complicated than others. In response to this, Mauriello (1992) discusses what she calls a "typology of difficulty". In it, she orders the various linguistic aspects of a text in arder of difficulty, as regards the transfer process. Her arder, starting with the least complicated factors first, is as follows:

• Lexicon, semantics, idioms

• Syntax, structure

• Terminology

• Concepts, logic

• Style, register, tone

• Language for special purposes (phraseology) (64)

The awareness of the translator as regards these variables and how he or she manages them will be significant factors in determining the quality of the target text.
1.1.2. The type of text. Just as the variety of original written work is very broad, so is the variety of translations. Wilss makes reference to this in his quotation above. Literature, technical writing, proposals, poetry, diplomas, certificates, legal documents, letters, memorandums, the list is almost endless. Each style represents its own difficulties, and frequently requires a particular translation approach in order to be carried out in the most effective way and produce the most adequate target text.

1.1.3. The source and target languages. Each language has its own linguistic and cultural peculiarities, including aspects of lexicon, semantics, syntax, and style. In addition, particular languages will complement or relate more or less directly with other languages. It follows, then, that creating a semantic or functional equivalent is easier when working with certain source language-target language pairs than with others. The phenomenon of "Iinguistic and cultural untranslatability" (Gerding-Salas: 1998, no page) always exists to a certain degree between any two languages, but will be greater or lesser depending on the specific pair that one is faced with working on.
Baker (1992,42) shares the example of the problem encountered when wanting to translate tagged teabag into Arabic. It was overcome not by a lengthy written description of the product, or by a specially invented term, but rather by an illustration. (As the saying goes, a picture is worth a thousand words.) In the hypothetical case of a translation into a target language other than Arabic, it's Iikely that this problem wouldn't require such a creative solution, but rather the simple use of a word closely equivalent to fagged, an adjective which apparently does not exist in Arabic.
As another example, Wílss (1976, 123-129) indicates certain specific difficulties which are commonly encountered when faced wíth a German-to-English translation, as regards the nominal-style means of expression. He notes that this manner of speaking is more common in the former tongue than the latter, a phenomenon which frequently complicates the task of the translator working between the two languages. Very possibly, this particular type of translation problem wouldn't occur in the event of transferring material from German into a language other than English.

1.1.4. The purpose and reader of the translation. Just as every source text has an author, every target text has a reader. Depending on the background and expectations of the reading public, the style of translation and even the particular information which is included can vary.
Calderaro (1998, no page) mentions the differences between a translation aimed at a specialist public and one aimed at a lay public. A reader in the former group will already have an understanding of the theoretical bases of the topic and the use of highly technical terms will not pose a difficulty. The translated text, therefore, must be of an appropriate lexical style and complexity; otherwise, the specialist reader's expectatíons won't be met and he or she upon revising the text willlikely be disappointed to the point of boredom.
A reader in the latter group is just the opposite. He or she will not have the theoretical bases to follow and understand a technical discussion. In this case, the translated text must also, therefore, be of an appropriate lexical style and difficulty; in Calderaro's own words: "(The] translator must, above all, contribute to the author- reader communication." This can require lowering the technical level of the source text and finding the right balance between the scientific level of the original work and the elementary knowledge of the public. If the translator is not successful in achieving this, the lay reader's expectations won't be met due to an inability to grasp the message of the text, and he or she will likely be confused to the point of abandoning the reading.
Several authors have developed translation methodologies, that is to say a series of steps or procedures to follow during the transfer of textual material from source to target language. Among the numerous factors identified by each methodology as especially important, the particular reference by which to guide the transfer process, and certain aspects of the translation process and certain characteristics of the source and target texts, are highlighted. It is the task of teaching translation to instill in the student the knowledge of these references, situations, and procedural techniques.
In addition, the numerous tools or 'tricks of the trade' which are necessary for the professional activity which is translation, were presented. As stated by Mauriello (1992), the aim has to be "to provide [ ... ] students with the technical skills needed by them to enter the market and be able to meet the demand for literary, technical, scientific, legal, economic, commercial translations arising from the publishing, manufacturing and trade industries" (63) It was expressed that where prospective translators are to be trained, the series of prerequisites, which included both linguistic and extralinguistic aspects, must be emphasized, taught, and practiced.
Having up to this point a 'wish list' of theoretical bases and practical ski lis which good translators must be able to count on, the discussion naturallY comes to the idea of how to teach them to translation students. The need is to develop a teaching translation model or methodology to follow in the classroom in order to produce newly-graduated translators with all the required theoretical and practical background to exercise adequately their new profession. By means of this classroom procedure the professor looks to give the students some structured and systematic approach, from which to start their learning and upon which to base their own particular translation techniques (Mauriello, 1992).
While the study of translation theory and practice is well-developed, it must be recognized that the study of teaching translation theory and practice is quite new. Although true that every c1assroom teacher with any number of years in professional work will have his or her own methods and procedures by which to instill in his or her students the necessary skills, a systematic study of these techniques has only just begun to appear in the literature.
Furthermore, in addition to the mechanical process of translation, the mental processes of the translator are also of interest to researchers. The idea is that, if what is going on in his or her mind as he or she transfers the material from source to target language is well understood, some conclusions can be drawn which might be of use in the teaching of translation and in the development of classroom exercises (Dieguez, 1990).
Two contrasting methodologies
Dieguez (1990) presents two contrasting methodologies in translation teaching. The first can be considered a 'traditional' teaching model, while the second has been adapted to include and promote positive elements which have been left out of the first. Precisely by studying them both in turn, the deficiencies of one and the advantages of the other become apparent.
Methodo/ogy A. The first methodology which will be studied here is what can be thought of as a traditional teaching model, where the teacher directs the flow of information and ideas in the classroom. In this methodology, the students are passive and simply receptive to the instructions and commentaries of the professor.
The principie steps in the procedure are as follows:
The teacher presents the source material to the class.
The text is read by the group as a whole, or the group is divided into teams.
A brief analysis of the translalion difficuilies and stralegies is done in class eith~er by the whole group or in the various teams.
The tra'nslation is done as homework.
The target text reviewed, dlscussed, and corrected in class hlpedr by the whole group or in the various teams.
The final targel text is evaluated by the teacher.
This methodology emphasizes production of the fi n'a I text, rather than an understanding of the translation process as it occurs within the student. If the teacher gains an insight into the student's mental processes during the exercise and as he or she baUles with the transfer procedure, it is accidental. Nowhere within the methodology is there space made to discuss and analyze the student's thoughts and impressions of the task at hand.
Three translation models were presented. For all of their respective differences, each highlighted the primary importance of source text analysis and identification of potential translation problems. From this determination, the best transfer strategies were developed and executed. The methodology presented above does not emphasize to the same degree this step. In particular, the idea as promoted by Nord (1992), wherein translation problems can be categorized to be better understood and tackled, isn't reflected here. Rather, source language-target language difficulties are learned haphazardly, as they present themselves to the student within the text, without any conscious aUempt in the c1assroom to systematize the analysis.
Furthermore, Methodology A tends to lead to a much monopolized situation as regards the target text correction and evaluatíon process. During the activíty there is no question that the professor is at the center of the process, and that his or her comments and critícisms are the final word on any particular matter. In response to this classroom atmosphere, the student becomes very close-minded, passive, and receptive to the teacher's feedback and final opínion.
Methodology B. It's not dífficult to see that Methodology A does not promote a positíve learning environment. Where the student has little self-initiative, and he or she finds him or herself always waítíng for the teacher's final word in the class, imagination and creativíty are stífled. Stifled in an exercise - translation 8where they both are essential to producing the highest quality work possible.
In the following methodology, Dieguez proposes an alternative to this serious problem. The principie change and advantage which it represents is that the students are not left out of the decision-making and orientation process; but rather their input is fully incorporated into the exercise procedure. Furthermore, the emphasis is on the application of theoretical models of translation practice which are applied to real source texts, thus enriching the transfer process as carríed out in the classroom.
The principie steps in the procedure are as follows:
The teacher presents the source material to the class:-
The student presents in front of the group what ideas come to his or her mind while attempting to translate the text
The student translates the text for one hour on the computer as the teacher monitors, the activity
The student self-corrects his or her own translation for homework
The self-correction his presented in front of the group, emphasizing the translation resources and translation strategies which were used.
The teacher, having done his or her own correction of the translation, compares the two, accompanied by class participation.
The translation is evaluated by the whole group.
This methodology emphasizes the mental and practical processes of translation as experienced by the student, rather than simply the final product, as emphasized by Methodology A. Due to a higher priority given to activities and techniques which require the conscious expression of the student's thoughts and impressions, the teacher is given much greater access to how it is that the student confronts on a mental level his or her task at hand. This contrasts sharply with the former methodology, which simply gave priority to the final result of what are hidden - due to not having been looked for - thought processes.
In addition to the greater stress on the how of translation, instead of simply the what; Methodology B applies greater theoretical bases to the transfer process than does Methodology A. In this way, by learning to view any translation problem as only a particular example within a greater category of problems (see Nord, 1992, and Chapter 2), rather than a unique and hitherto unseen obstacle, the student develops for him or herself the needed analytical and technical ability, and selffconfidence, to be able to tackle and resolve most any translation difficulty which might arise.
The final principal difference between the two above described translation teaching methodologies is the correction and evaluation procedure. Whereas in Methodology A, the student was subordinate to the teacher in this area, in Methodology B it can be seen that the student participates at least to an equal extent as the professor. While true that it's the professor that gives the final grade to the activity, this model considers the student's own correction and evaluation procedure to be part of the exercise, rather than simply a necessary task for the teacher after the activity has finished.
The student's involvement in correcting his or her own translation helps immensely towards getting him or her to recognize what constitutes an error and what not within the field of translation. Over time and over a series of these activities, an error typology is established, where the most frequent mistakes are identified. The student, thus trained in the field, will have a much greater selffevaluation capacity and objectivity towards his or her own work both in the classroom and in the professional sphere.
Constructivist theory. Constructivist theory dates from as early as the eighteenth century, with the Italien philosopher Giambattista Vico. Vico's idea was that the only knowledge which a person can really know is that which has been put together by that same person (Von Glasersfeld, 1989, in Duffy and Cunningham, undated, no page); in that way, the idea that learning and knowledge is a process of construction carried out by the learner, was born.
From that time, numerous academics and researchers have expressed ideas related and derived from this initial concept. John Dewey was probably the greatest proponent of situated learning and learning by doing. His particular emphasis was in the participation of students in vocations, promoting the idea that rather than learning a vocation, what the students in reality were doing was learning math, science, literature, etc. through the vocational activity, oftentimes without even realizing it (Kliebard, 1986).
In constructivist education theory, for Dewey, the key to getting the student to learn was to perturb his or her understanding of a particular concept. That was to be the stimulus for initiating the learning process. Because of the perturbation, the student's interest was aroused, and from that point on learning was organized based upon the student's active participation in resolving the issue.
Bruner (1966) viewed the activity of the student as being the evidence of that the he or she was learning. Active struggling on the part of the student was the most important part of the assimilation process and was what constituted learning. This is contrary to traditional education theory, where what was learned was considered to be simply the final product of a lengthy procedure.
Of particular importance to constructivist education theory is the role of the teacher. Whereas in traditional circles, where the teacher is the individual who initiates, promotes, controls, and evaluates the class activities, in constructivism, the teacher's role is more as coach (Duffy, undated). The analogy to a sports team is apt: the players on the team will listen to their coach, but in the end it is the players that perform, and the coach will have to adjust his or her strategies according to the performance, energy, and capability of the players.
In the classroom, instead of the traditional flow of information (teacher to student), the coach-Iearner relationship is bidirectional (Duffy, undated). Rather than the goal being that the student repeat and replicate everything that the teacher transmits, the goal is to witness the student think and act for him or herself, even if the teacher is not in total agreement.
The application of meaningful learning and constructivist learning theory to the practice of translation teaching can lead to fascinate insights on how to improve the c1assroom instruction to translation students.
Based upon the theoretical discussion presented above, we can identify the following related points:
· The need to be fluently bilingual to be able to adequately learn translation practice can be viewed as meaningful learning in practice, wherein the previous knowledge - the languages - are used as the foundation to acquire new knowledge - translation techniques -.
· Other examples of the use in translation teaching of previously acquired knowledge upon which to base new knowledge include familiarizing students with the source text subject area before performing the transfer process; and having cultural familiarity in arder to determine the most communicatively functional way to express source text meaning.
· In Methodology B, as described above in Subsection 4.1.2., the proactive role of the student is an excellent example of applied constructivist theory. The teacher acts as initiator of the process, but the students quickly take control of the exercise and work to resolve the issue themselves.
· The evaluation process in Methodology B is student-directed. This is another essential aspect of constructivism. The activity of assessment and self-evaluation is considered as part of the learning process, rather than a necessary extra step after the learning is overo Where the teacher is able to get an idea of the student's thought processes as he or she carries out the translation, the manner in which the student constructs new knowledge will become evident. The teacher can at that time make adjustments to the c1assroom activities if necessary, to ensure that the learning process advances properly.
Meaningful learning. Meaningful learning, although being a term which only recently has become popular, had its origin many years ago, with the academic Ausbel. He coined the term specifically to go against the already known term 'repetitive learning' (Cole: 1986, 95). For Ausbel, the meaningfulness of learning referred to the possibility of establishing solid relations, rather than arbitrary, between what it is that the student must learn - the new content - and content that the student already holds in his or her cognitive structure due to previous learning experiences.
To learn meaningfully means to be able to attribute meaning to the material which is the object of learning. This attribution can only be structured upon a foundation of what is already known, by means of the updating of knowledge schemes which are relevant to the situation in question.
These schemes are not limited to assimilating new information, but rather meaningful learning always assumes the revision, modification, and enrichment of the material, establishing new connections and relations between them. With this, the functionality and comprehensive memorization of the material is assured.
From this perspective, the possibility to learn is in direct relation to the amount and quality of previous material knowledge, and the connections and relations which are established between previous and new material. The richer the cognitive structure of the person, in terms of elements and relationships, the more possibilities he or she will have to attribute meaning to novel situations and materials. Therefore, the person will have more possibilities to acquire new knowledge meaningfully.
It is understood that a particular knowledge has been learned functionally "when the student who has learned it can use it effectively in a concrete situation to solve a certain problem" (Mugny: 1990, 144).
The applicability of meaningful learning and constructivist teaching theory to translation teaching Although translation teaching is a specific field within the extremely broad range of teaching subjects, and will therefore have many particular aspects and characteristics which are alien to other fields, it is nonetheless a type of teaching, and therefore can be considered to be within the reach of general teaching theory. The application of such teaching theory to the specific case which is that of translation should permit the opening of many new possibilities in the c1assroom, and the better understanding of both old and new translation didactic methods.
Translation process concepts
With this overview of the principal process variables, the reader will now have a better idea of what is translation and the factors which affect the manner in which it is performed. It is worth following this material with a discussion of translation's theoretical bases and its place among other linguistic studies.
Wilss (1976) presents quality coverage of this material. The science of translation is has had, in comparison with other modern linguistic fields, a relatively short existence to the present, and its theoretical and methodological bases have frequently been in question. It has had problems finding a niche for itself within the system-dominated research paradigm of modern linguistics, and as such has not developed its own truly personal identity.
The reason for this difficulty is that the investigation of translation problems can not be accommodated using modern linguistic terms. Whereas other linguistic areas are concerned with the analysis and description of a single language, translation science is wholly involved with the manipulation of textual material between two languages. This fundamental difference requires the establishment of a distinct research paradigm for the study of translation.
Furthermore, the exercise of translation is clearly marked off from the four traditional monolingual skills. These are, of course, reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Translation competence requires all of these and more, and as such can be considered a supercompetence which holds as prerequisite a comprehensive syntactic, lexical, morphological, and stylistic knowledge of both source and target language, and the ability to synchronize the respective monolingual knowledge to the benefit of the final textual product.
In summary of the unlque nature of translation sClence within modern Iinguistics, instead of being simply a linguistic activity, translation process falls under the heading of psycholinguistics. Its professional execution requires the bringing together of two language levels, lexis, and syntax, towards the production of a product which is functional in the target language, yet is still directly related to the source language from which it came.
Translation methodologies
A methodology can be generally considered as a standardized procedure which is applied to the resolution of a type problem. While the precise process will vary, depending on the particular type of problem at hand, within all methodologies, there will be a series of steps to follow, the first normally being concerned with observation of the task; the second with analysis of the problem; the third with execution of a proposed solution; and the last with evaluation of the results and conclusions.
In the context of the translation process, the idea of a methodology, also called "model" or "approach" by various authors, has been developed to a greater or lesser extent by a number of academics in the field. Wilss (1976, 119) mentions "the finite number of basic components" which constitute the transfer process. The principal aim for any translation methodology has been to define the principal reference for translations, and then, using the reference as a guide, to identify a replicable procedure and the steps by which to carry out the transfer of information from source language to target language.
Limitations of translation methodologies
While the development of a translation methodology with a significant degree of applicability has its advantages (especially in the teaching of translation, as will be seen below), many academics (even some of those who intend to develop the models) have arrived at the same conclusion on the matter and, here, before going into a discussion of specific methodologies which have been proposed from within the academic community, it is worth considering the following point: that the 'summarization' of the translational process into a series of generalized steps will not guarantee high-quality work, and that regardless of the 'checklist'-type procedure which is chosen by a translator, there will always be room for, and indeed the need for, creative, one-time solutions, and flexible thinking during the transfer process.
Wilss, he himself having developed a translation model, nonetheless states it thus:
"Anyone who is experienced in the concrete problems of translation work is aware of the fact that the translator may at any moment be confronted with textual segments in which the overcoming of syntactic, semantic, and text-pragmatic problems is so complex and multifaceted that even the most sophisticated theory of translation operation is only of partíal help. This would compel the translator to take refuge in nongeneralizable creative thinking and rather unique transfer procedures" (1976, 130).
Furthermore, to quote the brief conclusion of an academic from as long ago as the first half the last century: "The theory of translation cannot be reduced to a rule of thumb." (Ames, 1920, in Wilss: 1976, 130)
A discussion of three methodologies
Having stated, however, these very sensible conclusions with respect to the usefulness of a translation methodology, and even though the application of a generalized transfer procedure will not guarantee high-quality work, that's not to say that there cannot be room for such methodologies within translation theory. As stated above, various academics have dedicated significant time and thought to the problem, coming up with, in the most developed cases, procedural steps, or at the very least, the identification of several universal situations or aspects in translation which the translator should be aware of and capable of dealing with.
The following subsections present three translation methodologies which have been applied by professionals. While it's uncommon for a method to be used in an isolated manner, that is without incorporating aspects of others in an eclectic approach to translation, it is very useful to study them as though they were wholly independent of one another.
A basic approach. The first methodology which will be discussed here is that described and utilized by Gerding-Salas (1998). She makes reference to a global approach to the translation of texts. This method identifies three general stages as constituting the overall procedure.
Comprehension and interpretation of the text. This first stage is the period during which the translator dedicates all of his or her energy to the understanding and analysis of the source text. Here, reading comprehension strategies (underlining of words, identification of translation difficulties, contextualization of vocabulary, etc.) are of prime importance in order to assure the full understanding of the material.
In this first stage, there is also room for a brief pre-editing of the source text.
Not always is the original material perfect, and therefore the identification and correction of errors committed on the part of the author and/or publisher might very well be necessary before a translation can be carried out.
Also important in this initial process of comprehension and interpretation is taking c10se note of extralinguistic information that the source material contains. By this are meant, the author of the piece, its aim, its date, the reading public for whom it is intended, etc. AII of this information can be used by the translator to his or her advantage in the next stage, which is the determination of how best to transfer the source material to the target language.
Re-wording of the source text into the target language. In this second stage, the full transfer of the original material into its translated form is completed. To this end, there is a variety of techniques from amongst which the translator might choose, depending on the particular source text and desired target text. Gerding-Salas, without going into any detail, mentions the following strategies: transfer, cultural or functional equivalent, synonymy, transposition modulation, compensation, reduction and expansion or amplification.
Any one translation job will not be completed using only one technique, but rather the strategy will undoubtedly be changed, depending on the particular text (be it paragraph, sentence, or translation unit) which is to be transferred and the aim of the final product. The translator's ability to adapt is paramount here, as is having the criteria to select the most suitable technique for any one situation.
Also of assistance in the re-wording process are various types of reference materials and sources. Gerding-Salas mentions parallel texts, dictionaries, encyclopedias, data bases, and other people, both professionals in the field and laypersons, as important resources.
Assessment of the resulting target text. As in any professional writing, once the first draft of the translation has been completed, the final stage is to revise and evaluate the quality of the target text and make any corrections that are necessary.
This entails a comparison of the final text with the original. The translator assesses the positive and negative aspects of the work, and should demonstrate a capacity for self-criticism and correction. This post-editing of the finished translation will take into account the syntactic, semantic, and graphemic levels of the translation, with an eye to adjust them as necessary.
The professional translator should also be aware of the sound of the target texts ("translating with the ear"). He or she always should strive for the most adequate use of the language, in order to achieve the most positive reaction from the reading public.
And finally, the presentation and layout of the final text should reflect that of the source text as much as possible.
This methodology is illustrative, yet doesn't discuss in any explicit nor detailed way a theoretical basis for why a translator might wish to apply it in his or her profession. In particular, in stage two, the idea of a starting 'reference' for the translation - which will determine the particular strategies and techniques to be used for the transfer process - is not considered. For this reason, it's evident that there are theoretical aspects which are lacking from the presentation of the methodology.
Equivalence vs. functiona/ity. In companson, Wilss, 1976, and Nord, 1992, include more theoretical background than does Gerding-Salas. In addition to the practical procedural steps which are part of the translation process, the concept of 'reference' - that which "sets the standard for any decision the translator is to take in the course of the translation process" (Nord: 1992, 39) - is elaborated upon and incorporated very clearly.
To illustrate the application of a translation reference, Wilss and Nord expound their own translation methodology, each of which upon being presented can be seen as an extreme case based upon a reference which is in conflict with the others. Following her discussion, Nord presents her own adaptation of the two methodologies, an adaptation derived from her desire to harmonize the two conflicting approaches.
Equivalence-based translation theory. The first methodology, and the second to be examined in this chapter, is called equivalence-based translation theory, as exemplified by Wilss, 1976,. It holds the source text as its principal reference, meaning that the aim of the author, the style and presentation of the original work, and its function within the source language culture is of overriding importance when deciding how to translate. In such an approach, the resulting target text should simply be the c10sest possible syntactic, semantic, and stylistic equivalent in the target language to the original. As was quoted from Wilss above in Section 2: Translation is the reproduction of "technical, common language and literary texts adequately in the target language". The target text is subordinate to the source text.
Towards this end, upon making a translation, he favors the analysis, translation, and evaluation of single sentences. The value of the sentence is that, although being contextualized, it is a "self-contained [...] combinatíon of linguistic signs" (123) which can be approached and transferred equivalently as a unit from source to target language.
He has identified a series of steps that should be followed when confronted with a source text, as described in other sections.
Syntac tic, semantic, and stylistic analysis of the source language sentence. Wilss is very careful in his analysis of the source text, which is characteristic of equivalence-based translations. His goal is to fully recognize the particular syntax, lexicon, and style which were chosen by the source language author, and determine why he or she selected these elements instead of others for use in the original text.
Here he also takes into account the syntax, semantics, and style of the preceding and following text, as although a sentence is a self-contained linguistic unit, its meaning is always modified by the linguistic aspects of the sentences which precede and follow it.
Analysis of the translation difficulties. During the analysis procedure as described above, certain translation difficulties will become apparent to the translator. These might be syntactic, semantic, or stylistic problems, where he or she can foresee complications in creating an equivalent version of the source text in the target language.
As part of this stage in the translation process, it's necessary for the translator to describe, classify, evaluate, and weigh up the difficulties which he or she has identified. In this way the material is prepared to be systematically processed in the next stage.
Translation o, the text and elimination o, the difficulties. With the syntax, semantics, and style of the source text analyzed, and the translation difficulties identified, c1assified and evaluated, it is at this point that the translator applies one of various transfer techniques to each individual sentence or even fragment of it. The techniques can be direct, or indirect and compensatory, always remembering that the essential reference to the work is the source text. This reference will influence the choice of technique which is made.
Direct techniques are employed in instances where the target language has an equivalent or almost equivalent way of expressing the meaning and form of the source text, syntactically, semantically, and stylistically speaking. Thus the transfer can be made directly, that is to say literally, without sacrificing the quality of the target text.
Indirect techniques are employed in the opposite cases, where the target language doesn't have an equivalent or near-equivalent way of expressing the full meaning of the source text. The difference might be due to syntactic, semantic, or stylistic inconsistencies - or a combination of them - between the two languages. Whichever it might be, a translation using a direct technique would not produce a satisfactory target text; something would be left out or would sound wrong.
An indirect technique transfers the source material to the target language, but without necessarily using an equivalent syntactic structure nor style. Wilss speaks at length of this in his discussion of the translation of a German sentence to English, noting the various syntactic, semantic, and stylistic differences between the two languages.
Critical assessment of the result. The semantic and stylistic equivalence of the target text with the source text must be evaluated. It is here that the translator personally must have a series of qualities which promote critical assessment. Objectivity is the first: the ability to judge a translation from an outsider's perspective, as if he or she hadn't done the job. Also necessary is a willingness to admit that he or she has made a mistake and to take a step back and resolve the problem.
Back-translation of the sentence into the source language. In the assessment process a useful technique is back-translating the sentence into the source language. This allows assessment of the accuracy of the translation techniques which were selected and the care the translator took in applying them.
If the transfer was performed properly from source to target language, resulting in the production of a syntactically and semantically equivalent text, upon performing the back-translation, the new sentence which is produced should be similarly equivalent both to the target language sentence and the original source language sentence. If it is not, then it's evident that somewhere in the transfer process, the translator applied incorrectly the techniques; possibly he or she used a direct technique where an indirect technique would have been more appropriate, or maybe he or she used an indirect technique but without including the necessary compensatory elements to complete the transfer.
The equivalence-based translation methodology gives somewhat of a sense of rigidity and inflexibility, of an approach wherein there is little room for translator maneuvering. Where the source text is the dominating influence over the transfer process and the target text must be "semantically and stylistically equivalent", there is little room for creative and flexible thinking to get across the same idea as expressed in the source text but in ways which are not strictly loyal to the original.
From the extreme position of equivalence-based translation, it is seen that the transfer process into the target text does not take into account the possibility that the target language culture may not understand certain aspects of the source text - or indeed the whole document -, and that therefore the transfer of material (and the material itself - should be adjusted accordingly. For this very reason, in the equivalence-based approach there exists a great danger wherein maximum functionality of the text in the target culture might not be achieved, due to the excessive stress on its source formo
Functional approach. The second methodology, as exemplified by Nord, 1992, and called the functional approach to translation, holds as its principal reference the function, or "scopos" of the target text in the target culture. This method argues that, since the c1ient is part of the target culture and it is he or she who is requesting the translation, the translator has a professional duty to produce a text of maximum communicative functionality in that culture. The source text, with its syntax, semantics, and style, is subordinate to the target text.
In her discussion, she concentrates on the analysis of both the source text, and the proposed target text, taking into account both linguistic and extralinguistic factors. In this process, she principally promotes the identification of "categories of translation problems which can be expected to arise" (45) in a variety of translation tasks. Once identified, these particular difficulties are overcome during the transfer process, always with the original reference in mind, that of the communicative functionality of the target text in the target culture.
She discusses four categories of translation difficulties which translators must be aware of and capable of resolving appropriately, as described in the following subsections.
Pragmatic translation problems. These are extralinguistic problems which can exist in any translation, between any two languages. The reason for which they are so ubiquitous is that they are not dependent upon the cultures, nor the languages involved in the transfer process, but rather have to do with the situation in which the source text was produced and the situation in which the target text will be produced.
Examples of pragmatic translation problems are temporal or spatial references in the source text, such as "today" or "in this country". It can be imagined, that where the target text is produced on a day further in the future, or in a different country, the reader of the finished translation could be seriously misinformed into thinking that the translated text was produced at such a time.
This category of translation problem illustrates well the difference between an equivalence-based translation and a functional translation. In the former, as described above, all references to time and space would be translated literally, without taking into account the possibility that the reader of the target text might be mislead by such references. The functional approach emphasizes the importance of appropriately adjusting these details, even if it means altering somewhat the exact meaning of the source text.
As this type of translation problem will be found in all translations, it is important for translators to acquire the habit of checking all extralinguistic aspects of the source text for just this type of potential transfer difficulty, as one of the first steps in analyzing any source text.
Cultural translation problems. These are extralinguistic problems which, as with pragmatic translation problems, will be present in every translation. However, the particular type of problem will be culture dependent, as some types will be typical of one culture and not necessarily of another and the strategy of resolving an individual case will depend upon between just which two languages the material is being transferred.
Nord includes the following examples of cultural translation problems:
• Text-type conventions
• General norms of style
• Norms of measuring
• Formal conventions of marking certain elements in a text
This category, as with the previous category, also gives a good idea of the difference between an equivalence-based translation and a functional translation. One can imagine the case of translating a text from English - whose cultural norm is to indicate length in miles, feet, and inches - to Spanish, - whose cultural norm is to indicate length in kilometers, meters, and centimeters.
The translator who performs the equivalent translation will translate miles as millas, feet as pies, and inches as pulgadas, and be satisfied with that he or she transferred the meaning of the source text equivalently. In comparison, the translator who performs the functional translation will realize that even though a Spanish speaker would understand millas, pies, and pulgadas, the most communicatively functional manner to express length in the Spanish language is using the words kilómetros, metros, and centímetros, and he or she will adjust his or her translation to accommodate this particular difference. The resulting target text will not be equivalent to the source text, but will be more functional in the target culture.
As with pragmatic translation problems, this category should also be one of the first to be detected by translators. They must become accustomed to identifying all potential cultural translation problems in a source text, and to determining the most satisfactory ways to resolve them. This is where broad familiarity with both cultures - the source and target culture - (as will be discussed in Section 4) is of great assistance, and where lacking, often requires research into the norms that a particular culture uses in order to express an idea in the most appropriate - that is, functional - way.
Linguistic translation problems. These are problems which are particular to any source language-target language pair, regardless of the direction the translation takes. Within this category are included lexical, syntactic, and stylistic differences - oftentimes unique to the particular pair of languages involved - which will create significant difficulties at the moment of making the content transfer.
Examples of linguistic translation problems include the so-called 'false friends' (where a word in one language appears to mea n the same as a similar word in the other language, but in fact doesn't), and particular grammatical structures in one language which have their equivalent in the other language in different grammatical structures (as in the relationship between the use of the reflexive se in Spanish and the passive voice in English).
In this category of translation problems, the difference between equivalenttbased translation and functional translation is not so c1ear cut. As seen in Wilss' paper, equivalent translation is willing to select and employ a different target language grammar than the source's, to the end of producing equivalent semantics. Here, the difference between the two approaches would instead lie in the willingness of the functional approach to add extra material where necessary, in order to ensure that the target text were fully functional within the target culture. Equivalent translation would not see this as a desirable option, and instead would limit the changes to the syntactic level.
Text-specific translation problems. These are problems which appear in a particular text but which cannot be defined as belonging to any one of the above three categories. They thus represent special situations belonging to that text, and so must be dealt with individually.
Examples of text-specific translation problems include figures of speech, metaphors, coined words, and puns. There frequently are very few ways, if any, to appropriately transfer this material in a direct fashion. Indeed, discussions of equivalent translation that were consulted for this study do not make reference to such a situation. Functional translation is more flexible and adaptable, and in the instance where a direct translation isn’t possible, can instead include explanatory notes or other very indirect transfer devices to communicate the meaning to the reader.
The functional translation methodology gives the sense of more flexibility and openness to consider a wide variety of alternative techniques for the transfer of material from source language to target language. Where the communicative functíon of the target text ís the overriding reference for the translation, no matter what the final text might look or sound like, the translator has more room to be imaginative and to create unique transfer solutions.
The functional approach can also be considered an extreme position within the range of translation methodologies. It can be seen that, where the transfer process into the target text only takes into account the communicative function of the product within the target culture, there exists the possibility that, in the process of adjusting the textual material to achieve the greatest impact in the target culture, the original version might be sacrificed to an unacceptable degree. These changes can include leaving out material, changing semantic and stylistic aspects, and redoing presentation and layout. For this reason, in the functional approach there exists a danger wherein the translator might not sufficiently respect the source text and the interests of its author.
From this discussion of the two approaches, it is evident that the equivalence-based approach and the functional approach are clearly polarized, where each represents a solution to the problem created by the other, yet in turn generates the problem that the other solves.
Nord has responded to this conflict adding an adaptation to the general functionalist theory which she has called "Ioyalty". Loyalty is the idea that, regardless of how functional the translator wishes his or her target text to be within the target language culture, he or she always has a duty and responsibility to be 'Ioyal' to the author and the material of the source text. This theoretical concept should pervade the work of the translator: look after the interests both of the reader of the translation and the author of the original work. Only the translator really knows whether he or she has respected and accomplished this for any one translation - since both the reader and the author are limited by the language barrier and only know their particular side of it.
The importance of a translation reference. As was mentioned above, the choice of a reference for a translation - that is, based upon equivalence of the target text to the source text; functionality of the target text; or functionality of the target text coupled with loyalty to the source text - will guide the choice of transfer techniques in the re-wording process as was described by Gerding-Salas. If the principal reference chosen for a translation is the form and content of the source text, at every stage of the translation process, the translator must be very careful that extra words and explanations not be included, always remembering that what is wished for is a stylistically and semantically equivalent copy of the source text in the target language.
On the other hand, if the translator chooses as his or her principal reference the functionality of the target text, there is more freedom to express the source text's ideas in any way necessary to get them across to the reader. Indeed, with every sentence of the source text, the translator must devise, from the target culture's perspective, the most adequate language construction, adding or subtracting words, explanatory notes, pictures, diagrams, etc.
Tools of the translator
From a popular perspective, a quality translation can be produced by any individual who is capable of reading, writing, and speaking both the source and target languages at a high level. While true that a translation would undoubtedly result from the effort, that it could be considered as "quality" is rather doubtful'
Linguistic prerequisites
With this introduction, we naturally come to the idea that there are a series of prerequisites that the prospective translator should have in order to translate at a high standard. The first has just been mentioned: "(Sound linguistic knowledge of both the source language and the target language" is an essential condition for the production of professional translations. (Gerding-Salas: 1998, no page)
By the general term "sound linguistic knowledge", two specific abilities are in particular implied. These are the following:
Reading comprehension in the source language. Newmark (1995b, in Gerding-Salas, 1998) includes this ability in a list of important fundamentals that any qualified translator must have. As translating is essentially a reading-writing exercise, the translator that is unfamiliar with the written form of the source language will not produce quality work. Comprehension errors at the semantic level, at the very least, will occur, and the final document will not reflect accurately the source text. This aspect is heavily affected by the type of source text and its written style, topics which will be discussed more fully below.
Writing ability in the target language. Newmark also includes this ability in the above-mentioned list, adding that the translator must be able "to write the target language dexterously, clearly, economically and resourcefully." Brockbank (198, no page) goes even further, stating that "A translator's most important skill is writing in the target language", and that "(every translation should sound as if it never existed in a foreign language."
As writing is the output stage of the vast majority of translations, any unfamiliarity with the written expression of the target language will lower the quality of the finished work, or at least require its revision by a professional more competent in this area. Even if the source text has been fully understood, if the translator suffers from redaction deficiencies, the message of the original will not be properlyexpressed. As in the case of reading comprehension ability, writing ability is highly dependent on both the type of target text and its written style, both of which will be discussed more extensively below.
Extralinguistic prerequisites
While the fundamental importance of these linguistic factors cannot be denied, professional translators are adamant in maintaining that there exist other prerequisites which the translator must count on for his or her activity. As states Delisle, 1980, "Linguistic competence is a necessary condition, but not yet sufficient for the professional practice of translation." (In Gerding-Salas: 1998, no page).
We therefore come to the idea of "extralinguistic" (Calderaro, 1998) or "extratextual" (Nord, 1992) factors which invariably affect the translation process, and which therefore must be recognized and accommodated. These include aspects of the language interpretation and recreation process which while not falling into the above two linguistic categories, do heavily affect the ability of the translator in both and thus the quality of the final product.
Among these extralinguistic or extratextual factors, are included the following:
The subject matter of the source text. As stated above, translation is essentially a reading-writing exercise. To be able to thoroughly study a source text, reading comprehension ability is required. But what happens if the text deals with a subject area about which the translator knows nothing? However well he or she can follow and absorb the meaning of the written source language, if the concepts are beyond the translator's knowledge base, it will be very difficult for him or her to recreate the meaning and style that is necessary in the target language and to produce a - literally - meaningful target text.
This is particularly a problem in technical translations, where concepts in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, medicine, etc, can escape the full understanding of the translator. Upon trying to transfer the ideas - ideas which are not fully grasped - of the source text to the target text, the quality of the presentation can be greatly reduced and "the translation [... turned] into a degradation of the scientific level of the original in the eyes of the scientific community." (Calderaro: 1998, no page)
The source and target text style. This point is very closely related to the above point, in that in many instances, the style of a text - that is, the particular words and expressions chosen, the punctuation used, the emotive nuances employed, etc. (Calderaro, 1998) - will correspond greatly to its subject matter. One can imagine a wide range of styles in literary texts, for instance, each corresponding to the particular situation which the author wishes to communicate. Technical texts, too, have their own style.
The ability of the translator to understand the style of the source text, and then produce an appropriate target text style is highly important. It permits both an efficient use of the language, where often complex ideas are expressed briefly in just a few words, and adequate punctuation ensures that the train of thought is straightforward and clear; and the creation of a target text which 'sounds' correct and natural.
The audience for which the translator writes. This point was referred to above in Chapter 1, as part of the discussion of several aspects which can add variety to the translating task. Here, in Chapter 3, the importance of this aspect lies in that the translator must be aware of his or her reading public, in order to produce a target text which satisfies its expectations and serves the intended purpose (Nord's "functionality" from Chapter 3.).
Where the target text was originally written for a specialist public, and intended for a reading public of the same level, the translator's job might be relatively simple. A more-or-Iess direct translation could be carried out, identifying the appropriate corresponding technical terms in the target language.
However, where the target text was written for a specialist public, and the reading public is of a layman's level of expertise, this situation can pose quite a challenge for the translator. In this case, he or she not only transfers ideas to the target language, but rather must also promote author-reader communication (Calderaro, 1998).
An analogous situation could be explaining to a child how it is that babies are created. Apart from the moral qualms that some people might feel about the task, the practical problem of devising a satisfactory explanation without using anatomical terminology - in other words, devising a child's level explanation ðwould not be easy. This same challenge is posed to a translator faced with expressing technical ideas in 'down-to-earth' language.
The translator's self-evaluation ability. In all professional activity, however well one believes that one performed the task at hand, there is always the need for an objective evaluation of the final product. This helps to ensure that mistakes and misinterpretations which may have escaped notice at first, are caught and corrected.
This general idea of professional evaluatíon is very applicable to the particular case of the translation process. Gerding-Salas (1998) notes that it is of great importance that a translator exhibit "the capacity to confront the translated text with the original text, being able to assess earnings and losses and showing self-correction capacity" (no page).
A crucial factor in any self-evaluation is objectivity. Too frequently, due to the final text being his or her own, the translator can come to feel that it is flawless; objectivity is precisely the abilíty to 'step away' from the text and read, study, and criticíze it as if it were someone else's.
Wilss, 1976, describes a technique that can be very useful in this process.
As described above, in Chapter 2, as part of his translation method, he advises the use of back-translation of the target text to assess the equivalency of the original translation. While this may not be a practical solution for large texts, it can be useful for particularly difficult parts of the source text, where the translator really isn't sure if the target text has been adequately produced.
The translator's curiosity and love for research. Calderaro, 1998, begins her article with several paragraphs on the importance of the translator having a passion for his or her work. She states, "[T]he main quality of a good translator is his endless love of his profession, [ ... ] whose absence will inevitably lead to poor-quality translations" (no page).
Particularly weighty in this prerequisite is a love for extensive research. The translator's profession "is characterized by continuous search and non-stop work." He or she who is not willing to return endless times to libraries, the internet, etc., in pursuit of a complete understanding of the source text, or of just the right way to express in the target language a certain concept, "will never go beyond the limits of mediocrity." (Calderaro, 1998)
The translator who is prepared to accept this fact is aware of that he or she is not an expert in all fields, and that even in his or her own, that of translation, there still remains much material to be learned. Such an attitude is very positive for the development of professional activity.
The ethics of the translator. As the translator is the "expert" in the interaction which the translation process represents - neither the author nor the c1ient can claim to understand both sides of the procedure (Nord, 1992) - he or she holds great responsibility in representing and defending the interests of both parties.
One can thus speak of the ethics of the translator. On the one side are the interests of the author of the source text. Nord (1992) speaks of this concept in terms of the word "Ioyalty", where the idea of a translation is not to create the target text independent of the source text, but rather, - regardless of the changes which the translator might make in the material - to always recognize and acknowledge the original work as the author presented it.
On the other side are the interests of the reader of the target text. He who reads a translation has certain expectations of the material. The principal one will be that the source information - the reason for requesting the translation in the first place - will have been faithfully and accurately transferred to the translated text. Gerding-Salas (1998, no page) describes the case where an incorrect translation almost lead to a woman undergoing breast surgery, instead of the simple procedure of removing a skin blemish from her face, for which she had originally gone in. From anecdotes such as this one, it becomes clear that the responsibility upon translators is great, and that mistakes during the transfer process can potentially cause losses of money and - worse still- life.
La Universidad Veracruzana inició su existencia formal el 11 de septiembre de 1944. Su creación recoge los antecedentes de la educación superior en el estado de Veracruz al hacerse cargo de las escuelas oficiales artísticas, profesionales, especiales y de estudios superiores existentes en ese entonces dentro de la entidad. A sus 62 años de creación se ha convertido en la principal institución de educación superior en el estado de Veracruz. Lo que nació como un pequeño grupo de escuelas y facultades es ahora una universidad grande y compleja, con presencia en cinco campus universitarios y en veintidós localidades a lo largo del territorio veracruzano. Pocas universidades en el país han experimentado un despliegue geográfico tan importante. En seis décadas de trabajo institucional, la Universidad Veracruzana ha logrado desarrollar una preponderante tradición de carácter humanista. Fiel al tiempo en que se creó y animada siempre por un espíritu de justicia social, la Institución ha asumido el deber de ofrecer y hacer participar de los beneficios de la educación y la cultura nacional y universal a todos los sectores de la sociedad. Las artes (música, teatro, danza, artes plásticas), las ciencias humanísticas y sociales (filosofía, lingüística, antropología, literatura, derecho) son parte de la identidad institucional. La dimensión humanística de la Institución ha definido la naturaleza de su contribución social y le ha significado un lugar destacado en el plano nacional y aún, internacional. La Universidad Veracruzana ha experimentado importantes cambios a lo largo de su evolución. Cambios que se manifiestan principalmente en una diversificación de los campos abordados, en el número de áreas de formación y carreras que ofrece, en la cantidad y calidad de sus programas relacionados con las actividades de investigación, extensión universitaria y difusión cultural.
El conjunto de programas de docencia impartidos por la Universidad Veracruzana la ubican como la universidad pública de provincia con mayor diversificación en su oferta educativa. Actualmente nuestra Institución cuenta con una población estudiantil de 70 mil alumnos aproximadamente. Se ofrecen 60 opciones de formación profesional a nivel de licenciatura, 2 carreras técnicas, 6 técnico superior universitario y 61 programas de posgrado. Distribuidas en los cinco grandes campus universitarios existen 72 facultades que ofrecen un total de 224 programas académicos. Se suman, además, los programas de las dependencias dedicadas a la investigación así como aquellos desarrollados por 32 grupos artísticos, 6 Centros Regionales de Enseñanza de Idiomas, 2 Centros de Iniciación Musical, 5 Talleres Libres de Arte y la Escuela para Estudiantes Extranjeros.
La cobertura institucional abarca las áreas académicas de Humanidades, Técnica, Económico-Administrativa, Ciencias de la Salud, Biológico-Agropecuaria y Artes. Los grados académicos que se otorgan son los de técnico profesional de nivel medio, técnico superior universitario, licenciatura, maestría y doctorado.
La Universidad Veracruzana ha realizado también serios esfuerzos en el terreno de la creación y desarrollo del conocimiento científico y tecnológico. En los últimos 25 años ha comenzado a establecer las bases académicas y de infraestructura necesarias para potencializar sus actividades de investigación científica y tecnológica. Actualmente se cuenta con una masa crítica de 441 investigadores y 31 dependencias dedicadas a la investigación. Se abordan aquí problemas de las ciencias básicas y aplicadas en un amplio espectro de áreas de conocimiento.
En el campus Xalapa funcionan 32 facultades, 18 institutos 4 centros de investigación, un Centro de Iniciación Musical Infantil, un Centro de Idiomas, un Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras, cuatro Centros de Autoacceso, dos talleres Libres de Arte, una Escuela para Estudiantes Extranjeros, un Laboratorio de Alta Tecnología, una Unidad de Servicios de Apoyo a la Resolución Analítica, un Hospital Escuela y una Unidad de Servicios Bibliotecarios y de Información (USBI). En Veracruz, 13 facultades, tres institutos y dos centros de investigación, un Centro de Iniciación Musical Infantil, un Centro de Idiomas, dos Centros de Autoacceso, un Taller Libre de Arte y una USBI. En Orizaba-Córdoba, ocho facultades, dos centros de Idiomas, dos Centros de Autoacceso y un Laboratorio de Alta Tecnología. En Poza Rica – Tuxpan, 13 facultades, un Centro de Idiomas, dos Centro de Autoacceso, dos Talleres Libres de Arte y una USBI. Y en Coatzacoalcos – Minatitlán, ocho facultades, un Centro de Idiomas, dos Centros de Autoacceso y dos USBI
La Ley Orgánica establece, como fines esenciales de la institución, la tarea de conservar, crear y transmitir la cultura en beneficio de la sociedad, con el más alto nivel de excelencia académica. En el Programa de Trabajo 2005-2009 se retoman tales propósitos para hacer explícita la misión institucional de ofrecer programas académicos de calidad reconocida, tanto a los usuarios tradicionales de los servicios universitarios, como a sectores de la población históricamente marginados de este nivel educativo, y para asegurar en todos sus estudiantes la capacidad de insertarse con éxito en los mercados laborales cambiantes por medio de un desempeño profesional eficaz, la inclinación hacia la actualización permanente, el uso eficiente de las tecnologías de la información y la habilidad para identificar problemas y proponer soluciones adecuadas.
Asimismo, establece el compromiso de ampliar, multiplicar y reforzar su misión estratégica para la distribución social del conocimiento en todo tipo de sectores y para una gama diversa de poblaciones, donde la nueva plataforma tecnológica, las redes virtuales, las alianzas estratégicas, la educación a distancia, la educación continua, el extensionismo universitario y los programas culturales, sean la pauta para cumplir con este gran propósito.
Esta filosofía institucional requiere, necesariamente, de una corresponsabilidad social, solamente posible mediante la construcción de alianzas estratégicas, operables y eficaces con los sectores sociales, económicos y gubernamentales para generar sinergias y acciones concurrentes que efectivamente transformen el paradigma tradicional de la universidad pública mexicana y latinoamericana, y ésta, a su vez, fortalezca y potencialice su capacidad generadora de movilidad social y de equidad de oportunidades como institución generadora de bienestar y progreso para las mayorías excluidas de los modelos y conceptos de modernidad, paz, justicia y equidad el siglo XXI demanda.
Para el mejor cumplimiento de su misión, la Universidad Veracruzana constituyó un Consejo Social que se apoya en diversas instancias asociadas como el Patronato Pro-UV, Patronatos Regionales, Patronato del Museo de Antropología de Xalapa, Patronato de la Orquesta Sinfónica de Xalapa, Fundación de la Universidad Veracruzana, A. C. y Fondo de Empresas de la Universidad Veracruzana.
El origen de la actual Facultad de Idiomas, de la Universidad Veracruzana resulta difícil de precisar, fundamentalmente por la falta de documentación y archivos clasificados. Originalmente, le estaba encomendado impartir la enseñanza secundaria y de bachillerato, así como la superior en los grados de licenciatura, maestría y doctorado. En los grados de secundaria y preparatoria que estaban incluidos en los planes de estudio de la Universidad se comprendían las materias de inglés en los cinco años, independientemente del área de estudio por la cuál hubiera optado el estudiante.
De lo anterior se desprende que en los niveles de enseñanza media, la Universidad Veracruzana impartía la materia de inglés, pero a esto debe añadirse que también lo hacía en las licenciaturas, aunque o bien como materias obligatorias del plan de estudios o bien como un apoyo a los alumnos para sus estudios superiores.
Por otra parte, debe considerarse también que, en 1972, se creó el ciclo de “Iniciación Universitaria”, dependiente de la U.V. previo al estudio de las carreras propiamente dichas y posterior a la preparatoria, que se conoce comúnmente como “propedéutico”; en donde el inglés quedó incorporado al plan de estudios como materia obligatoria en su aspecto específico de traducción.
De acuerdo con la Información General de las Carreras del Area de Humanidades de 1976 , en el año de mil novecientos cincuenta y dos se creó el Departamento de Lenguas de la Universidad Veracruzana, dedicado a la enseñanza de idiomas, principalmente el inglés y el francés, impartiéndose con posterioridad también el italiano y el alemán.
1969 se menciona por primera vez a la Facultad de idiomas. El grado que en definitiva se otorgará es el de Licenciado en Lengua Francesa o Licenciado en Lengua Inglesa.
Por su parte, en la Memoria de la Universidad Veracruzana 1951-º1956 con fecha diez y siete de julio de mil novecientos sesenta y uno se aprobó la creación de la carrera de Maestro en Letras Inglesas, donde, como su nombre lo indica, básicamente se estudiaba inglés y literatura inglesa. Sin embargo, la existencia de esta carrera fue precaria ya que sólo permitió egresar a una generación
Escuela de Idiomas. Volviendo al Instituto de Lenguas o Departamento de Idiomas, en 1965, queda constituido en Escuela de Idiomas que: cuyo primordial objetivo fue preparar a sus estudiantes para fungir como técnicos en la enseñanza de los idiomas inglés y francés, en escuelas de enseñanza media y superior (secundarias, preparatorias, normales, tecnológicas, etc.) Otras tareas para las que capacita a sus egresados a través de las materias y actividades señaladas en el plan de estudios, son las siguientes: 1.- La traducción de textos ingleses o franceses, para fines educativos, comerciales, industriales, etc. 2.- La investigación de carácter lingüístico o filológico, tanto con fines docentes, como puramente literarios. 3.- La investigación de tipo psicopedagógico, a efecto de aconsejar reformas en planes y programas de estudio existentes
El primer plan de estudios se regía por el calendario anual y se cursaba en tres años, posteriormente la carrera se amplió a cuatro años.
Fue en este primer plan de estudios en el que se cumplía con el objetivo primordial de preparar a sus estudiantes para fungir como “técnicos” en la enseñanza del idioma inglés en escuelas de enseñanza media y superior tales como secundarias, preparatorias, normales, tecnológicos, etcétera.
La existencia del primer plan apenas si logra los cuatro años de aplicación plena, porque en esa época se produce un movimiento mundial de revisión de los conceptos tradicionales, donde la ciencia y la educación son objeto de revaluación, primordial ante las exigencias de un replanteamiento de la enseñanza, el cual también repercute en la Universidad Veracruzana. Esta tendencia también se dio en la actual Unidad Docente Interdisciplinaria de Humanidades buscando mejorar la educación, los niveles académicos y los objetivos de sus centros de estudio, en ese orden. Se resuelve ampliar de tres a cuatro años los estudios de la Escuela de Idiomas para conseguir que sus egresados dejen de ser técnicos en la enseñanza del idioma inglés o francés y obtengan el grado de licenciatura, lo cual implicó un cambio en el plan de estudios a través de los órganos colegiados de la Universidad Veracruzana. En 1968, por acuerdo unánime de los entonces denominados Colegios de Maestros, se cambió el plan de estudios de profesor de inglés o francés aumentándose a cuatro años e implantando la Licenciatura en Idioma Inglés, lo mismo que la de Francés, con lo que se consideró se ampliaba el objetivo de la carrera.De los objetivos, propiamente dichos, no se puede agregar gran cosa, ante la inexistencia de archivos de ese período y dado que el cambio se hizo copiando un plan de estudios de una licenciatura de idiomas francés que existía en Francia e incluso muchas de las materias que existían para la licenciatura de francés se aplicaron para la licenciatura de inglés.
Del análisis del segundo plan de estudios se desprende que, se impartían tres cursos de Inglés Intensivo en los tres primeros años; del mismo modo, en el segundo y tercer año se cursaba Gramática Inglesa; en el primer año Laboratorio de Inglés; en los cuatro años se estudiaba Español, los dos primeros dedicados a la gramática y los dos últimos a la literatura; los Cursos Prácticos de inglés sobre vocabulario, ortografía, redacción, conversación, dictado y explicación de textos se realizaban en los dos primeros años, de Fonética se cursaban cinco materias, una dedicada a fonética general, dos a la inglesa y dos de laboratorio que se estudiaban durante los tres primeros años; se implantó un curso de Traducción de cinco horas semanales en el cuarto año; en el aspecto didáctico se estudiaba en cuarto año Técnica de la Enseñanza de los idiomas y Psicología Educativa; en tercero y cuarto año se cursaba Literatura Inglesa; en los dos primeros años se implantó el curso de Idioma Optativo; en cuarto año se cursaba Filología e Historia de la Literatura Inglesa y en los dos últimos años se cursaba respectivamente, Disertación y Explicación de Textos y Disertación. El plan era anual, estaba formado por veintisiete materias y ciento dos horas, considerándolas por semana. Este plan contenía catorce materias que estaban encaminadas al conocimiento del idioma inglés, tres relacionadas con la cultura inglesa, una como materia de apoyo complementario, así como las materias de español que servían de base para la enseñanza de otro idioma y de conexión con el inglés, dos pretendían la preparación en aspectos de enseñanza, una de traducción y el último grupo formado por dos materias que daban oportunidad de conocer otros idiomas como el francés, alemán o italiano.
El segundo plan de estudios apenas cumplió un ejercicio de cuatro años, porque en mil novecientos setenta y dos fue sometido a revisión. El tercer plan descansa en los motivos del anterior ya que se sigue tratando de una licenciatura y se presenta en forma anual. Sin embargo, de las entrevistas efectuadas se puede desprender como causas que motivaron el cambio o revisión la insuficiencia del segundo plan, la necesidad de reubicar materias, ampliar otras y reformar los programas que se habían venido utilizando.
El tercer plan de estudios era anual, dividido en cuatro años, sumando un total de treinta y cinco materias por ciento dieciocho horas. Sus materias pueden comprenderse en dieciséis grupos y éstos a su vez en tres subgrupos, considerando en el primero las materias tendientes a enseñar el inglés propiamente dicho, en el segundo a las que buscan enseñar sobre el inglés y el tercero, las materias que mantienen una conexión con el inglés. El segundo subgrupo acepta una división en tres partes según se estimen las materias, como relacionadas directamente con el saber sobre el inglés o conocer de él para aplicarlo en investigación o en enseñanza.
Un elemento digno de consideración previa, aunque sea en manera brevísima, es el del cambio de Escuela de Idiomas al de Facultad de Idiomas. A pesar de que en la Información General de las carreras del Area de Humanidades 1976 se señalo que “...en el año de 1976, al entrar en vigor la nueva Ley Orgánica de la Universidad Veracruzana, la Escuela pasa a ser Facultad de Idiomas, a partir del día 5 de enero de este año.
Clasificación de materias por áreas. Así, el motivo principal que había impulsado la modificación del tercer plan de estudios, se consiguió, esto es, se implanto el sistema semestral y se abandono el anual, de tal suerte que el plan quedó comprendido en ocho semestres dentro de cuatro años.
Posteriormente, el plan se estudios se amplia a cinco años dandole un plus al ofrecer materias que van encaminadas a la elaboración de la tesis o proyecto de titulación.
Actualmente, la Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa (LLI) tiene la misión de formar profesionales críticos, creativos y propositivos con un amplio dominio del inglés, preparados para desempeñarse en las diferentes áreas laborales en donde la lengua inglesa es el componente principal: en enseñanza de lenguas en los diferentes ámbitos educativos y la traducción e interpretación, entre otros. Estos profesionales estarán preparados para contribuir a una reconstrucción social donde el aprecio por la propia identidad ,la tolerancia, y la solidaridad, así como el conocimiento de otras culturas, sean primordiales.
La carrera prepara profesionales en el manejo de la Lengua Inglesa en las áreas de docencia, traducción y literatura a través del estudio de las cuatro habilidades lingüísticas básicas (compresión y producción oral y escrita). Además, proporciona conocimientos sobre las manifestaciones culturales y literarias de los pueblos de habla inglesa. La duración de la carrera es de diez semestres.
El objetivo de la licenciatura en lengua Inglesa es el de formar profesionales con un alto dominio de la Lengua Inglesa en las cuatro habilidades lingüísticas básicas (comprensión oral y escrita y producción oral y escrita), así como de un vasto bagaje histórico, cultural y literario de los pueblos de habla inglesa, capaces de: " Diseñar, implementar y evaluar planes y programas de estudio para la enseñanza de la lengua inglesa. " Diseñar o adaptar material didáctico que contribuya al autoaprendizaje del inglés. " Seleccionar y/o elaborar textos para el aprendizaje del inglés. " Realizar con responsabilidad actividades de docencia, investigación y traducción.
Para alcanzar tal objetivo, a partir del septimo semestre, se hace la división en las siguientes áreas de concentración: Docencia, Traducciòn y Literatura.
En la que en el área de concentración en traducción encontramos la materia de:

Es de considerar que en la actualidad una de las características más sobresalientes es el uso de la tecnología en general y las computadoras en particular, tanto para transmitir y recibir información (telefonía celular, Internet, radio comunicaciones, etc.) como para realizar un sinnúmero de tareas (computarización de medios electrónicos por ejemplo), no es de extrañase que la tecnología se aplique a la educación y encontremos institutos educativos que ofrecen licenciaturas o postgrados a distancia, asesorías por Internet, salas de chat para público especializado.

La implementación de tecnología dentro de las aulas de nivel primaria (equipo de cómputo) y el uso de multimedia interactivos como un recurso pedagógico implementado por la SEP son ejemplos de la importancia que la tecnología educativa dentro de nuestro sistema de educación. No es raro enterarse que cada vez más escuelas de todos los niveles, privados y de gobierno, implementan computadoras, cañones, pizarrones interactivos e Internet en sus instalaciones, por lo tanto es natural que quien quiera estar a la vanguardia en lo que a educación concierne tendrá que pensar en la aplicación de la tecnología educativa en sus instituciones.

Después de algunos años como estudiante de la Facultad de Idiomas de la Universidad Veracruzana, he sido testigo dentro del aula del efecto que tiene la falta de trabajos acerca de la enseñanza de la traducción. Algunos aspectos a considerar dentro de mi experiencia como estudiante del área de traducción de la mencionada licenciatura fueron que aunque le estrategia utilizada para el aprendizaje de la traducción era inferencial, las sesiones estaban dominadas por el profesor y los estudiantes no referían bases teóricas consistentes en la defensa de sus propuestas de traducción de algún texto y por lo tanto el aprendizaje de los modelos de traducción era deficiente.

Basándome en estos hechos, es mi intención mediante este trabajo de investigación crear un software multimedia del modelo Franco Canadiense de traducción para elevar la calidad de la enseñanza de la traducción en el octavo semestre de la Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa de la Universidad Veracruzana ya que es en este nivel en el que los estudiantes cuentan con los antecedentes teóricos del modelo de traducción Franco Canadiense y están listos para poner estos conocimientos en práctica.


Con base en lo anterior expuesto mi hipótesis es:
La aplicación de un software multimedia del modelo Franco Canadiense de traducción apoyado con estrategias pedagógicas mejorará la calidad de las traducciones en los estudiantes del octavo semestre de la Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa de la Facultad de Idiomas de la Universidad Veracruzana en la materia de Taller de Traducción I.


Las variables de este estudio son:

Como variables independientes tenemos:

· Software multimedia (del programa franco canadiense de traducción);

· Estrategias pedagógicas para atender cada una de las ocho áreas del modelo Franco Canadiense (modulación, transposición, calco, etc).

Como variable dependiente se encuentra:

· Calidad de la traducción, de los estudiantes del octavo semestre de la Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa de Facultad de Idiomas de la Universidad Veracruzana en la materia de Taller de Traducción I.


Como técnicas de recolección de datos propongo la prueba pedagógica basada en las variables que propone el modelo Franco Canadiense, en la cual cuantificaré la calidad de las traducciones. La encuesta para cuantificar el impacto de los productos tecnológicos en el estudiante; y la observación de clase.


Objetivo general:

Evaluar si un software multimedia del modelo Franco Canadiense de traducción en conjunto con estrategias pedagógicas mejora la calidad de las traducciones de los estudiantes del octavo semestre de la Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa de la Facultad de Idiomas de la Universidad Veracruzana en la materia de Taller de Traducción I.

Objetivos particulares:

· Diseñar un MMI del modelo Franco Canadiense de traducción.

· Implementar estrategias pedagógicas para que el estudiante tome un papel central en el aula.

· Identificar los conceptos teóricos básicos de aplicaciones multimedia.

· Conocer los marcos teóricos de las estrategias pedagógicas.